The Chemistry behind the body: Muscles & Chemistry Process


Hello my cutie pies, welcome back to my blog!


Today I'm going to talk about the the muscles more important of our body or at least the most common for exercise. Most of the time when you're going to exercise you always talk about some particular muscles or group of muscles (legs, arms, core, back), but you have to know that there is more than you can see, and those little mucles can make a difference.

As you already know, the body consists of muscles (approximately 40% of body mass). In addition, the movement of the body is generated by contractions and relaxation of specific muscles. What brings us to, what is the muscle? Muscle is a contractive tissue essential to human life like pumping blood through your veins. The muscles are connected to other parts by tendons (rich in protein and collagen). The contraction of muscles in a molecular level consist in a series of biochemical. The muscles are made of proteins (Enormous molecules of made of huge chain of amino acids). They are two types of muscles, the skeletal (known as a voluntary muscle) and the smooth (known as the involuntary muscle). The smooth muscles are regulated by the nervous system, like the stomach, intestine walls, veins, arteries, internal organs, among others. These smooth muscles in difference with the skeletal are just striped. The skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton, that means that you can control the movements and the use. They are made of fibrous tissue (striated and stripe) known as a muscle cell. White muscles fiber is the same as the fast muscle fiber, fast twitch muscle and muscle fiber type I. The red muscle fiber is the same as the slow muscle fiber, slow twitch muscle and Type II. 

i. Type I

  1.  Red Muscle= Slow muscle fiber= Slow twitch muscle
  2.  Take a long time to fatigue, perfect for long time activities and endurance workouts.
  3.  They take a role in our daily living.
  4.  They have more mitochondria which mean that they have higher capacity for oxidation and more aerobic enzymes tends to respond better to endurances.
  5.  Operate with oxygen
ii. Type II

  1. Known as white fiber muscle=fast muscle fiber=fast twitch muscle
  2. Fatigue quickly, perfect for short burst activities like sprint.
  3. The generate more forces
  4. Exist to type of Type II: Type 2A fiber and Type2X fiber.
    1. The type 2A fiber is between the Type I and Type 2X.
  5. Tend to be more responsive to the strength training. Tend to growth about 25-75% in response to training than type I.
  6. Operate without oxygen
Average type I muscle fiber of lower body muscle
Average type I muscle fiber of upper body muscle


The different muscles display different proportions of muscle fiber types. Has been found the the lower body have a tendency toward have more proportion of Type I muscle fiber in comparison with the type II. This muscle fiber is packed full of contractile fibers called myofibrils that are lined up like train cars. The myofibrils units are called sarcomeres, that are made of two main proteins (actin and myosin) and this protein are wrapped around his active bonding by two complexes called troponin and tropomyosin.


Muscles need energy in order to contract. They receive energy when chemical energy is released from certain molecules, e.g. glucose (a type of sugar), that were previously consumed in food. Most of the chemical energy (i.e. the energy released when certain chemical bonds are broken during chemical reactions) is released to muscles when glucose and oxygen react together in a process called aerobic respiration. The contractions of the muscles involve biochemical process like I said before. The muscle contraction is stimulated by a motor neuron that release acetylcholine into the membrane that surround the muscle fiber (Specifically the Sarcolemma). This acetylcholine binds at special sites on the muscle. Once the muscle is relaxing the nerve ending ceases to supply the sarcolemma with acetylcholine. In the process when the organelles are activated, the sarcoplasmic reticula release calcium during the contraction and absorb them during the relaxation. This biochemical process involves ATP hydrolysis. The ATP Hydrolysis is used to break the bonds between head of the myosin and the actin. This reaction need one ATP reacting with one mol of water and a catalytic (Hexokinase) to produce one ADP and liberate energy. Just 40% of the energy that is liberate is use for the other reactions, the rest is lost as heat. A brief summary of the biochemical process is when a nerve impulse triggers a biochemical reaction, the myosin in thick muscle stick to actin in thin muscle and lock. This way the thin and thick muscle are put together. When this happen thousands of times make the muscle moved, this means that the process of contraction is instantaneous, and the muscle is always ready to repeat the process.

ATP Hydrolysis






How you get big muscles? The muscle gets bigger with filling in of the rips (specially with protein). Once the muscle is ripped, burns storage energy release lactic acid. When the lactic acid is release this trigger anabolic cascade and the body repairs the damage muscle during R.E.M. sleep. Formation of lactic acid in muscles occurs when insufficient oxygen is supplied to the muscles, resulting in the release of energy via anaerobic cellular respiration instead of by aerobic cellular respiration. Anaerobic and aerobic respirations are the two possible forms of muscle respiration. 

Comparission of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration Pathways



Chest:

a. Main muscle: pectoralis major (pec major)

      a. To grow intercostal head do flat and decline bench press.

      b. To grow clavicular head do incline and reverse grip bench press.

Back:
a. Trapezius

b. Rhomboids

      a. Major

      b. Minor

c. Latissimus dorsi

d. Erector spinae 

e. Small muscles, but important:

      a. Teres major and minor

      b. Infraspinatus

Arms:

a. Biceps brachii (biceps)

b. Biceps brachialis

     a. Lies beneath the biceps and assist in flexing the elbow separating the biceps and the triceps.

c. Triceps

      a. Make the opposite work of the biceps

      b. Main muscles:

           i. Long head tricep

           ii. Lateral head triceps

          iii. Medial head triceps

d. Forearms

      a. They are the calves of the arms.

e. Shoulder

      a. Main muscle: Deltoids

          i. Anterior (Front)

          ii. Lateral (middle)
          iii. Posterior (rear)

       b. Is important to develop the 3 of them.

       c. The angle at which you press or pull will change how much deltoids are trained relative other muscles.

           i. Barbell row: attack more the rear that the lats pulldown 

           ii. Overhead press: more the anterior than upper chest



Legs:

       a. Main muscles:

           a. Quadriceps 

                i. Main

                   1. Vastus

                        a. Lateralis

                        b. Medialis

                        c. Intermedius

                    2. Rectus femoris

                         ii. For best work in those muscle include front squads and lunges

           b. Hamstring

                 i. Main muscles:

                     1. Semitendinosus

                     2. Semimembranosus

                     3. Biceps femoris

                 ii. They are like the biceps

                 iii. For better results do specific exercise with focus on the hamstring

          c. Glutes

               i. Main muscles:

                  1. Gluteus

                     a. Maximus

                     b. Minimum

                    c. Medius

             2. If you train your lower body correctly they are no need to do extra exercises, except if you want to grow these muscles. 

         d. Calves 

               i. Main muscles:

                  1. Gastrocnemius

                  2. Soleus

                      a. It’s internal, but is important

                ii. They are two types of exercises to focus on the calves

                   1. Calf press

                   2. Calf raising

                 iii. Stand and seated calf exercises are important to don’t neglect the soleus.



Core:
      a. Main muscles:

             a. Rectus abdominus

             b. Transverse abdominus

             c. Obliques

                  i. Internal

                  ii. External

      b. They get work with the exercises of the other muscle groups.



The composition of the muscle determines the performance, depending of the type of exercise that the person perform (sprint, endurance). The time of muscle recover vary between 48-96 hrs. and 72-96 hrs. and that depend of the lifestyle and what the people eat. You can do compound exercises or isolation exercises to attack your muscles. Has been found that the best for recovering and for not being hours in the gym is better make compound exercises, because you target more than one muscle and it’s difficult to target just one muscle because they are all together. Some of compounds exercise are squats, deadlifts, bench press and military press. The isolation compounds are bicep curls, cable fly, side lateral raise, among others. Regarding to the type of exercise that you are performing, if you want to do strength exercises its recommend doing mostly heavy, low reps training, light to moderate training mix. If is endurance do mostly lighter, high rep train with some heavier lower rep with mix. 

Some workouts per muscle group:






































Forearm exercises


























http://www.chemistryislife.com/the-che
http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ma-Mu/Muscular-System.html
http://www.innerbody.com/image/musfov.html
https://www.builtlean.com/2013/09/17/muscles-grow/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756754/
https://drjohnrusin.com/program-training-variables-build-lean-muscle-mass/
https://healthyliving.azcentral.com/effects-exercise-types-muscle-fibers-11269.html
https://www.strengthandconditioningresearch.com/hypertrophy/muscle-fiber-type/#7



**I don't have the copyright of the images. 

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